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Some Christian Evidences on the Invented Macedonian Question

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October 2011

Some Christian Evidences on the Invented

Macedonian Question

 

Abstract

 

The purpose of this small paper is to provide some Christian evidences (during the Christianization of Greek-Macedonians in year 50 A.D.) and a scientifically true analysis on the Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what this information regarding Macedonia means to us and to the uninformed world as a whole. We will offer some thoughts and unshaken Christian events that may help to answer questions concerning today’s conditions in south-eastern Europe, the borders of the “Christendom” (currently, the under decomposition European Union). It is imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human beings have this information regarding an artificial state, Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia, because we, as educators, are responsible for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific delusion. This new Albano-Slavic state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” for its nation and Greece is opposing their aggressiveness and will resist their expansionism. It is historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have nothing in common with Ancient Greeks since they came from Dardania and appeared in the region in the 7th century A.D.; their old name was Vardarska. How can they found their new establishing state on an incredible lie? They must know that there is social justice and it will, soon or late, prevail!

 

 

I. Preface

           

            Hellenic history, Orthodoxy, and culture have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today.[1] The democracy of ancient Greece,[2] the accomplishments of her people,[3] the great ideas of her moral philosophers,[4] scientists and artists,[5] and finally, the dramatic events, which have unfolded in the glorious history of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in Christian truth have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations.[6] Even though that Greece has truly improved mankind, the West was and is against Greeks and their achievements.[7] The comparative advantage of Greece is her civilization. And of course, Greece has the copyright of this unique and oldest civilization, which is viewed stolen in the museums around the “civilized” world.

 

            Further, history, scientific truth, divine justice, morality, human respect, liberty, rights, sovereignty, and International Law are social necessities and they require satisfaction. Otherwise, this world cannot proceed towards its objectives, and Orthodox nations towards their perfection. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and his values and virtues and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (order, ornament). Moral, ethical, independent, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation. Nations, also, need to pass their time in peace, in respect, in justice, and by supporting their citizens (their well-being) and the other independent nations without any intervention or else they will face the Divine Justice.

 

            Today, the Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU), remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors (the barbarian Turks since the 11th century A.D.)[8] and lately, since the fall of the communism, the desperate Skopjeans have begun to make claims against northern Greece because they need to create a national history, after abandoning their Slavic ancestry, on which they will found their pseudo-state. They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and disinformation everywhere in all the “controlled” nations,[9] the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. But the question remains, how can these newcomers Slavs be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state as “Macedonia”? This fallen world has lost completely its values and purpose!

 

 

II. A Summary of the Longest Historic March

           

            During the ancient times, the entire area of Greece was divided into independent city-states, but they had the same blood, language, religion, culture, and civilization. They encouraged cooperation among city-states and cultivation of the intellect and the fine arts. As they were growing, they were starting to establish colonies along the costal regions of the Mediterranean. These cities were united for times against common foreign enemies; i.e., during the Persian wars, which lasted from the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. to the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) to the naval battle of Salamis (479 B.C.), and the battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.  Alexander the Great, the King of the Greek city-state of Pella, united all Greeks and went against these Asian invaders.

 

            From 450 B.C. to 300 B.C., it was the intellectual period, where Socrates taught about the soul and spoke of the Unknown God[10] hoping that He would reveal Himself. Plato and Aristotle made significant contributions to human thought with their moral philosophy and their foundations on almost every science (except Probability Theory), while sculptors such as Pheidias, Scopas, Praxiteles, and others experimented with new forms of artistic expression by putting the standard for the future and beautified Athens. Xenophon was also the father of the new moral discipline of Economics.[11]

 

            At the same time, a new Greek city-state Pella, more powerful politically began to emerge in region of Macedonia (the Northern part of Greece).[12] In the four decades before the Hellenistic Period (323-146 B.C.), the Macedonians under King Philip II (359 B.C.) forcefully united most of the Greek city-states after defeating Athens and Thebes in battle at Chaeronea, and built a powerful Hellenic confederacy.[13] The illustrious Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, schooled by Aristotle, embarked on a historic expedition in 336 B.C. to conquer the vast empire of the Persians (punish them for their past invasions of Greece). In only eleven years he subdued this mighty foe and extended Hellenic influence, language, civilization, and paideia far into Africa and Asia, as far as India.[14] Alexander’s achievement marked the height of Hellenic military power.[15]

 

            Following Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), violent and frequent warfare among rival Greek (Hellenic) leagues tore apart the Empire. These conflicts rendered the Greek city-states vulnerable to invasion. Finally, in 146 B.C., after fifty years of war, Roman legions conquered Greece. Although conquered, the Greek culture “subjugated” the Roman culture. During and after the Hellenistic Period, the classical Greek culture and Greek language were dominant throughout the Orient.[16] This was God’s Providence! In A.D. 50, the Apostle Paul preached Christianity in Greece, and from the time when he spoke to the Athenians about their “Unknown God”, for whom they already had a temple, a common religion, the Hellenic Orthodoxy united them and made them an inseparable group, the Greek-Orthodox people.[17] Many people believed to Jesus Christ and two Athenians became disciples of St. Paul from the first day, a man named Dionyssios (a Judge in the Supreme Court in Athens) and a woman, Damaris.[18] Also, the use of the Greek language in writing the Gospel and by the Eastern Church and her fathers gave a new dimension to Hellenic culture and created the spiritual Medieval Hellenic (Byzantine) culture. No Slavo-Macedonian language anywhere in the region because Slavs came seven centuries later in the area from the north-central Europe.[19]

 

            The Byzantine (Medieval Greek) Empire was the continuation of the Alexander’s the Great Empire and of the Eastern Roman Empire.[20] It was their evolution and transformation in the East. The transposition of the center of gravity of the Ancient Greece and the Roman nation from West to East (3rd century A.D.), the transfer of the capital from Rome not in Athens, but to an area predominance of the Greek spirit and language and at the same time not the pagan gods of the past, but the intense effect of Orthodoxy; all these combined, created the starting point of one autonomous historic march of the eastern sphere of the Empire. Byzantium was a new political form, where Hellenism and Orthodoxy created a new culture.[21]

 

            The Byzantine Orthodox hymns[22] emphasize that the people of Byzantium are the “people of the Lord”. The same can be seen in other historic texts and it is clear that the perception of the Empire’s role as a divinely guided entity prevailed throughout the world of Byzantium.[23] The citizens of the Byzantium are understood to be the “chosen” people of God, the genuine Christian people of the “God guarded” Christian-Orthodox nation, compared with the heterodox of the west; of course, no comparison can be made with the allodox or pagans of today. During its whole journey in history, Byzantium had the same strong perception that among the fundamental goals of the nation was the protection of the Christian faith, its propagation, and its perpetuation until the Second Coming. Surrounded most of the time by nations of other religions, the Christian people were obliged to defend their faith, because in this way, they saved their national identity.[24] They had a strong involvement in religious strifes, an exceptional sensitivity towards heresies, and dogmatic opposition. Also, they Christianized their northern neighboring Slavic (like, Skopjeans) and Russian nations.

 

            Uprising against the Turk conquerors occurred sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, but it was not until the early nineteenth century that the modern Greek Nation evolved (confined by her allies only on the European side of the Byzantine Empire), commensurate with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. On March 25, 1821, Greeks resumed their march through history again. A revolutionary army composed of patriots from Peloponnesos, Sterea Ellada, and the Aegean Islands began to battle the Turkish armies. Although both sides scored success, the conflict soon reached a stalemate. At the request of the Sultan, the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha invaded Greece, thus allowing for intervention by the three great European powers (France, England, and Russia) on the side of the Greek insurgents.  

 

            In 1939, World War II broke out in Europe and by 1940 most countries of Europe had surrendered and Hitler had the Continent of Europe in his grip. On October 28, 1940 Mussolini decided to take over Greece with an easy victory based on his numbers and mechanized forces. He attacked Greece from Albania. The Greeks with their Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas stood up and said “Ochi” (OXI = No, you shall not pass) and these heroic forefathers of today’s Greeks fought with a will, hurling back the aggressors. The Duce’s divisions were soon pushed back into Albania and for six months were fighting to maintain a hold on the sea-cost, desperately calling for help.[25] When Germany entered the war against Greece with the most powerful army in Europe, the Greeks continued to fight both of these big empires although reason must have told them that their position was hopeless. Beside their British comrades, they continued to resist stubbornly on the Island of Crete.

 

            Finally, Greece fell, but it cost Hitler thousands of his finest youth, and delayed for two months his attack against Russia. German troops ran into the dreadful Russian winter and the Russians imposed such appalling losses that it contributed to the ultimate defeat of Germany.[26] The occupation, great famine, resistance and subsequent liberation of Greece followed, and then came the “December Movement”, in which Greek communists fought their brother Greeks. This civil war ended in August 29, 1949 with the defeat of communists. England helped Greece first and later, the United States helped with the Marshall plan, which lent Greece to a new era and made her one of the most important allies of the West; but, her ignorant politicians threw the country, without a referendum, to the nails of the anti-Greek European Union. Then, it came the dissolution of Yugoslavia and the creation of pseudo-“Macedonia”. Until 1991, the Ancient Macedonians were unknown to Skopje. In 1991, they issue a banknote of 20 statirs (“Statir” was the currency of Ancient Macedonians during the period of Philip II, which brought the inscription in Greek language: FILIPPOY and the currency during the Alexander the Great period brings his name: ALEXANDROY).[27] This new bill was printed, but it did not approve as the national currency. Nikola Gruevski blew up the minds of ignorant Skopjeans with false dreams that they had the Ancient Macedonians their ancestors. Liubco Georgiefski aimed Skopje to join Bulgaria. Branko Crvenkovski is financed by G. Soros, who is working for a multinational and multicultural “Macedonia” and Kiro Gligorof was saved from an assassination attempt because he dared to say the truth, “We are Slavs!” The Albanian parties in Skopje are pleased with the support of Turkey. All these facts show the big crisis that exists in Skopje and give to us a feeling about its future.[28]  

 

 

III. Christian Evidences

 

Looking at sources outside Greece, in the Acts of the Apostles, the Apostle Paul writes of his travels in Macedonia. He refers to Greek cities (Neapolis, Philippi, Thessalonica, Verea, etc.) and men and women with Greek names. One gets an impression of a Greek environment, attitude, and culture being present in Macedonia. Here, it must be noted that Macedonia was the main gate of the entrance of Christianity in the European Continent. Let us bear in mind the vision of the Apostle Paul that night in Troy, which determined the following Christianization of Europe. “So, passing by Mysia,[29]  they went down to Troas. During the night Paul had a vision: there stood a man of Macedonia pleading with him and saying. ‘Come over to Macedonia and help us.’ When he had seen the vision, we immediately tried to cross over to Macedonia, being convinced that God had called us to proclaim the good news to them.”[30] It is characteristic that the Apostle of the Nations, addressing himself to the Macedonians, was preaching the Word of God and writing his letters in the Greek language. There is no Macedonian language or non-Greek Macedonians anywhere. These people, who were Christianized by St. Paul (in year 50 A.D.) were Greek-Macedonians. The Slav-pseudo-Macedonians were Christianized by the Greek brothers, Methodios and Kyrillos much later (9th century A.D.)[31] because they were not Greeks and they were living far away in the north of Greece, in Dardania.

 

The vision of the “Macedonian man” in the book of “The Acts of the Apostles”, the letters of the Apostle Paul, “To the Philippians” and “To the Thessalonians A and B” and all the other references in the Old and New Testaments concerning Macedonia constitute unassailable and infallible testimony of her Greekness. Not only these, but the continuous and uninterrupted line of bishops and saints; the great number of churches and monasteries found throughout the Macedonian regions (even within the borders of the Democracy of Skopje) as well as the Monastic Community of the Holy Mountain with its sovereign Greek characteristics and its spiritual light shining upon Orthodox Nations near and far, give holy evidences that Macedonia is Greek.

 

Saint Timothy accompanied Saint Paul to Macedonia, to Philippi, to Thessalonica, and to Verea (or Berea). “Many of them [in Berea] therefore believed, including Greek women and men of high standing.”[32] When the apostle Paul left Verea, Timothy and Silas remained there to confirm the converts. Then, when St. Paul went to Athens (in 51 A.D.), he asked Timothy to come to him and later, Timothy was sent back to Thessalonica because he had an account of the churches of Macedonia. After some time Timothy went with Silas to Corinth to meet St. Paul. Saints Timothy and Silas are mentioning at the beginning of the two Epistles of St. Paul to Thessalonians.[33] This entire region was Greek, with the same language and culture, made up by different cities under the Roman occupation. With the exception of some Latin tribal settlements, the basic population of Macedonia was Greek.   

 

Concerning ancient Macedonia, it is needful only to speak of the stones and the archaeological treasures of Vergina, Dion,[34] and other areas to silence the forgers of history. Of Christian Macedonia, the unceasing chorus of the Holy Scriptures, the Churches, the Monasteries, the Saints (i.e., Methodios and Kyrillos), the Byzantine Hymns, and frescos (well-paintings) shout the truth. Above all the icon of Saint Demetrios, who on horseback guards vigilantly the Walls of Thessaloniki and strikes with his spear the vanquished invader prone upon the ground, speaks of the Greekness of Macedonia. And all invaders from that time to the present, whether ancient barbarians or the would-be conquerors of present day Skopje, have all dreamed to go down to Thessaloniki and to the Aegean Sea with no hope of success! The Greek defenders will prevail because the right, the truth, and the justice are on their side.

 

Skopjeans went beyond any limit from their confusion and the difficulties that they have to persuade themselves and the anti-Greek West. They try with any mean to prove that they are the legitimate off-springs of Alexander the Great and they put statues of Alexander and of other Ancient Greeks to their squares and public buildings. Also, they give these Ancient Greek names to their roads and other places. But, the most outrageous delusion, in which they fell, was that they declared as saint of their self-proclaimed “Macedonian orthodox church”, Alexander the Great, who lived 350 years before the coming of Jesus Christ. Thus, they made the Greek Alexander the Great as “Saint Alexander the Macedonian”.[35] Also, Skopjeans celebrated the 20th birthday of their pseudo-state, which has not been recognized with its “constitutional name” by the U.N.; under a 22 meters statue of the Greek Alexander the Great. These Skopjeans love the Greek Alexander more than Greeks! Amazing hypocrisy from this circus, who wants to usurp the historic inheritance of the Ancient Greek Macedonia.[36]

 

           

IV. Some Concluding Considerations

 

            The role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic (and as time passes the vast majority of learned people will realize it) because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, the fake, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture? The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. Christian evidences confirm the Greekness of Macedonia and the choice by God of the Greek Alexander the Great to spread the Greek language, and the Greek moral wisdom to the entire known world. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for seven thousand years, obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the “civilized” (but ignorant) world and the hordes of barbarians (that God allows them to dominate for some time, due to our sins). One representative of this Hellenic race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek commander of the army, who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.[37]

 

            The name “Macedonia” was given by Tito and was used for this South Yugoslav region only since 1945,[38] but it was identified for tens of centuries with Greek civilization and Greek history. Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of Macedonia becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries, which recognized this new government was Bulgaria and Turkey. The stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition or by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally, if Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and unite with Greece, then, they will become Greeks by culture and paideia, not by blood, and at the end, they will be Macedonians (as Greeks living in Macedonia).

 

            It is clear when, objectively examined, that the “Macedonian Question” for Greece cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue.[39] The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of Neigy (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for more than 4,000 years. Even the former president of Skopje, Kiro Gligorov, stated in June 1992 that they are Slavs, who came in the area in the 6th century A.D. Then, there is no connection between Ancient Macedonians and the Slavs of Skopje, which usurp the Greek history, names, symbols, and heritage.[40]

 

            For these reasons, Greece is opposing the recognition of an independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name “Macedonia” (or any composite name having as one component the word “Macedonia”). Of course, this does not mean that Greece is against the Skopjeans right to establish their own independent nation and have their own language, history, and traditions. All people have the right to self-determination of their future; of course, this choice is confined within the limits of International Law (or legality). Greece, however cannot accept the use of the Macedonian name by any nation, which is in all other respects Slavic. The terms “Macedonia-Macedonians” and names of similar relevance belong to Hellas and Hellenes (Greece and Greeks). They constitute Greece’s national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and especially in the area of Macedonia. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of Greece, exactly as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, misguided, and calculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort.

 

            Finally, the fact, that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any longer. The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions (all Greek) with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.[41] Also, the numerous Christian evidences, the spreading of the Greek language, the Greek moral philosophy, the Greek civilization, and the Greek culture to the entire known world from the Greek Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina, Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalki-diki[42] with Petralona, Sithonia, Tironi, and others. Even the minister of the U.S. Foreign Affairs, Edward Stettinius, had sent on December 26, 1944 to all the diplomatic offices of the U.S.A. an elucidative and attributive encyclical, in which he says that the “Macedonian Issue” is an unjustifiable demagogy coming mainly from Bulgaria and does not represent a reality.[43]  The historic truth must prevail among all humans of the 21st century, if we want to see a social prosperity in our small world.

 

           

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Kallianiotis, I.N. (2011c), “Historical Evidence on the Greekness of Macedonia (2)”, Cri-stianikhv Bibliografiva,  JIstoriva, January 30, 2011, pp. 1-19. http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/01/30/historical-evidence-on-the-greekness-of-macedonia-2/

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[1] The English language has borrowed 40,000 Greek words, See, Schizas.com, September 10, 2011.

[2] See, Jones (1997).

[3] See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).

[4] See, Marchant and Todd (1997)

[5] See, Pedley (1998).

[6] But, at the same time, Hellas faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions (allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia.

[8] This was the Battle of Manzikert. See, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Manzikert . With Bulgaria in 1905-1907, with Italy in 1940, and with Albania (Tsamides) in 1941-1944, who collaborated with Italians the Germans against Greeks. The buccaneer of the Mediterranean (Turkey) threatens war clash against Greece and Cyprus because Cyprus wants to utilize its natural resources. Greece must do the same right away, which will support the country economically and improve the current debt crisis.     

[9] Mahathir Mohamad, former leader of Malaysia, said that “Jewish groups secretly control the World’s great powers”. See, The Wall Street Journal, October 9-10, 2010, p. A1 and A11.

[10] After 350 years, Saint Paul went to Athens, in A.D. 51, to preach this Unknown God (the True God). (Acts 17: 22-23).   

[11] For Socrates, human flourishing (eudaimonia) was the goal, rather than great accumulation of material goods. Xenophon accepts private property and the division of labor within certain ethical limits. In his work, the development of the ethical approach to household management (oikonomia or oikonomikē), or microeconomics, within the context of the Greek city (polis) can be seen. Friendship (philia) and gentlemanship (kalokagathia) are discussed together with oikonomia as a united package. There is a strong linkage between ethics and economics in Socrates and Xenophon. See, James E. Alvey, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?issn=03068293&volume=38&issue=8&articleid=1938121&show=html&PHPSESSID=bp02n332v1d875m2qqo2n772k5&&nolog=142950 .

[12] We can see their coins, too; all the inscriptions and names on them are in Greek. For more information see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon

[13] Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion, according to Herodotus, 5th century B.C. and many other similarities as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them.

[14] There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in northern Iran.

[15] From 404 to 338 B.C. hegemonies of Sparta, Thebes, and Macedonia (area of Northern Greece) appeared. From 359-336 B.C., the reign of Philip of Macedonia took place. From 338-323 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the entire Asia; he went to India and Africa, too. The Old Persian Empire, which had invaded Greece many times in the past, was overrun by the Greek-Macedonians. In 322 B.C., Greek-Macedonians took over Athens and overturned the Athenian democracy. From 323 to 272 B.C., Alexander’s successors sought domination and the Hellenistic Kingdoms were created in Greece and the rest of the Empire – of Macedonia (with Antigonus), of Egypt (with Ptolemy), [The tomb of Alexander the Great was discovered by the Greek archeologist Liana Souvaltzi. See, Souvaltzi (2002).] and of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran (with Seleucus). “Under the sponsorship of Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic Kingdoms that succeeded it, Greek culture spread over the whole Mediterranean world, and in the first century B.C. achieved a thorough intellectual conquest of the imperial Roman republic, its military conqueror.” [Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p. 10)].

[16] Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time. This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were “barbarians” outside the Hellenic culture and paideia (paideiva). This is the historic truth and not what some pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history.   

[17] The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too. This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people.

[18] See, Acts 17: 34.

[19] In the 7th century A.D., various Slavic tribes (Dragouvitae, Strymonitae, Sagouditae, etc.) began settling in the Macedonian region. With the permission of Byzantine (Greek) authorities these tribes set up small Slavic enclaves known to the Byzantines as “Sclaviniae”. Throughout the 7th century, the Slavs continually fought against the Byzantine authorities and repeatedly attacked (without success) the city of Thessaloniki. See, Kallianiotis (1992), p. 33).

[20] See, Vasiliev (1980).

[21] The contribution of the three hierarchs (Sts. Vassilios, Grigorios, and Ioannis) is unique in the connection of the ancient Greek moral paideia with the Christian revealed values.

[22] See, a Hymn chanting on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. (Today, it is September 14th, the feast day of the Gross).

[23] The same beliefs continue to hold even today in the Greek Orthodox nation and the Greeks of Diaspora, who are more than 100 million people of Greek origin spread around the world. This unique culture is inconceivable by any other sub-culture.

[24] The problem that Greece is facing today is the dilution of her identity, due to millions of Muslims illegal immigrants that Turkey is smuggling into the Greek nation. This is a new Turkish invasion to Greece after the previous one in 1974 in Northern Cyprus.

[25] This victory of Greeks was a miracle from Panagia for their fair and just defense of their country.

[26] Germany has not yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to Greece and her citizens.

[27] See, Kallianiotis (1992, p. 39).

[28] See, MacedoniaHellenicLand.eu, Septemebr 16, 2011.

[29] Mysia (Greek: Μυσία) was a region in the northwest of ancient Asia Minor. It was located on the south coast of the Sea of Marmara. It was bounded by Bithynia on the east, Phrygia on the southeast, Lydia on the south, Aeolis on the southwest, Troad on the west and by the Propontis on the north. In ancient times it was inhabited by the Mysians, Phrygians, Aeolian Greeks, and other groups. As we see from the names of the cities, all are Greek names.

[30] See, Acts  16: 8-15.  

[32] Acts 17: 12.

[33] See, St. Timothy, Paul’s Associate, Christianity.com.

[34] <<Dion>> the city of Dias (Zeus).

[35] See, dailynews24.gr, August 22, 2011.

[36] See, MacedoniaHellenicLand.eu, September 11, 2011. http://www.macedoniahellenicland.eu/content/view/2162/1/lang,el/

[37] See, Aristotle, Meteorologika A 14. 

[38] In 1948, Cominform, the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, put into action a plan to take hostage to communist countries children from Greece during the Greek civil war. The aim was to re-educate the children as well as blackmail the populace and the Greek government towards reaching a settlement leading to a partition of Greece and the subsequent creation of an internationalist "Macedonian" Republic. This move has favoured by the Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito and had been a Comitern policy aimed at destroying the national states of the Balkans through the creation of internationalist republics.

[39] Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to call their nation “Macedonia” and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23. 

[40] See, “Kiro Gligorov: We are Slavs (archive video)”, MacedoniaHellenicLand.eu, September 19, 2010.

[41] There is a series of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from these perspectives, as they can be seen in the references, at the end of the paper.

[42] Chalkidiki was a colony of Ancient Chalcis of Euboea. See, http://www.macedoniahellenicland.eu/content/view/2143/65/lang,el/ . The Ancient Tironi was established by Chalcideans in the 8th century B.C. and it was one of the most significant cities in Chalkidiki. It had its own currency and was a member of the Athenian Alliance. In 348 B.C., the city came under Philip II. See,  MacedoniaHellenicLand.eu, September 6, 2011. 

[43] [U.S. State Department, Foreign Relations, Vol. viii, Washington, D.C., Circular Air gram (868.014/26 Dec. 1944)]. See, Voanerges, Issue 54, March-April 2011, p. 87.